The Great Black Men:

This paper is the research behind the book titled The Black Jacobin, Barack Obama also titled Barack Obama

J.R.S.F./Sawal Sawal, Developer/Owner(iHolla.com)/Author.

BOOKS, PUBLISHED / NOT PUBLISHED:

Barack Obama, Volume One.

Mr. J.R.S.F. writes under the name of Sawal Sawal.The book is on Amazon.com .

Summary:

I am not comprehending this book as a book which is not comprehensible not to be part of the administration of the Mr. the president Barack Hussein Obama; I am not comprehending this book for the wife of the president, although one might think that this book is dedicated to the wife of the president; however, this book is not dedicated to the wife of the president, the president can decide not to accept this book as part of his administration, but this book will in fact help him comprehend his administration better. I am not comprehending this book as not being a book which is not a book in regard of the man who is the president of the U.S. A, that is, I am not comprehending this book as the book titled the Black Jacobins, but I am not comprehending the book not to be a book where I cannot comprehend the matter that is not comprehensible when it comes to choose a president for this country after what happened at the 911 and after what happens at war, that is, at every war, that is, that is, that is. I am not comprehending the words that is, and the words that is not and the words not that is not and the words not because which are words which will be used too often against the president in the future and at present when it comes to the bigotry noticed even at the first day of office by the president whom I named a Black Jacobin for the purpose of this book.

Review:

An impassioned and insightful dissection of the inevitable bigotry against the President, named a Black Jacobin for the purpose of this book. A poetic cry against the imbedded bigotry, fostered by ignorance of the black experience and historical contributions, which will be used too often to diminish and disempower this first black leader of the free world, now and throughout his term in office. -- BY F.W., GRAPHIC DESIGNER

TAKEN FROM THE BOOK:

I cannot comprehend the matter, not of the book, but of the fact that Mr. Malcom Little said Malcom X is not comprehending the matter, but however I cannot keep going in this book because I am not in favor of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. because we cannot coexist in the same area. I am not in any ways, not any different, not from, not from, not from, not from, not from. I cannot comprehend this book if the book does not speak about my thesis I have a dream because this is what I am, I am my thesis because I cannot comprehend the man who call himself Mr. Malcom X if he does not come over here with his thesis, that is, I cannot comprehend the president of the U.S. if he does not come to me with a thesis, that is, I cannot comprehend the Mr. Barack H. Obama, that is, is he comparable? That is, is he comparable? That is, is he comparable? That is, is he comparable? Off course this is politic, but this is not comprehensible that a lawyer has to be comparable to my daddy to be in politic, that is, I am not comparable to my daddy myself and I am the son of my father, that is, this is not a rhetoric that changed the life of my father. I am not in any ways, not any different, not from, not from, not from, not from, not from. I cannot comprehend the matter that is being discussed in this book because I cannot, not comprehend the matter, not of this book, but of the fact that I cannot comprehend the matter that is being discussed, not in this book, not because I cannot comprehend the matter, but because I cannot, not foresee the reason for which that I cannot comprehend the matter of this book if this book does not comprehend my story properly. I cannot be compared to my predecessor because I cannot comprehend myself if I am being compared, not properly with my Idol.

Barack Obama, Volume Two: This book will be published.

TAKEN FROM THE BOOK:

The high speed rail system [TGV] @ the Job Summit, this is part of an article taken from the book; this article was sent to the Job Summit in 2009
The following is an article with respect to the matter being discussed in the news this week. I am not inconsiderate of the fact that I am not incomprehensible of the matter discussed this week in the news in regard of the Job summit which took place at the White House for the following reasons, that is the market is not welcome to any individual who is looking for work, not at this point in time, not for not, not for ne pas. I am not incongruously inconceivable of the matter which took place at the summit where the US Chamber of Commerce was not invited, not for not, not for ne pas, not because, not because, not because. I am not incongruously incomprehensible of the result of the summit if the summit does not find it important to invite the US Chamber of commerce, which is in fact too little too late for the US Chamber of Commerce, to make a mend for the fact that there are not enough jobs created after the Stimulus package implemented earlier this year, not by the US Chamber of Commerce; however, there are progress would say the US Chamber of Commerce which is responsible for 150 millions jobs in this country, that is if the US Chamber of Commerce is responsible for the 150 millions jobs created in this country; therefore, why the US Chamber of Commerce would not be responsible for the lack of employment which is in direct relation, not with the US Chamber of Commerce? I am not incomprehensible of the matter that is not the matter which is not incongruously, incompetently, impossibly incomprehensible, not to the President, but not to the Presidency that is not the truth; Politic aside, let us not be incomprehensible of the matter that is not the matter which is not inconceivable of the matter that is not inconceivable of the fact that is not the fact which is not to comprehend as being the main factor of the crisis in the job market, which is not a reason not to celebrate the matter that is not the matter which is not the main focus of this Presidency would say the US Chamber of Commerce, that is I am not in favor of the US Chamber of commerce not for not, not for ne pas. I am not incompetently, incongruously, impossibly incomprehensible of the main focus of the Presidency which is well demonstrated and shown in the work done last year and earlier this year which resulted into a Stimulus Package...

Vivre avec les Vampires, Volume un.

"la voix qu'on entend dans le monde subliminal qui dit quoi faire pour réussir dans la vie à new york c'est cette voix que l'on devient après la mort, la voix du diable", Vivre avec les Vampires

Mr. J.R.S.F. writes under the name of Sawal Sawal.The book is on Amazon.com .

L'auteur Sawal Sawal n'est pas ce que l'on penserait qu'il est, c'est-à-dire, quelqu'un qui n'est pas en relation avec dieu, je ne pourrai ne pas comprendre que je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je ne suis pas en relation avec dieu vu que je ne suis qu'un être humain parce que je ne voudrai ne pas confondre mes lecteurs qui ne comprennent pas les mots, ce que, et les mots, ce dont, et les mots, ne pas, ceci dit, je ne veux jouer avec les mots pour confondre mes lecteurs, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je peux plus écrire comme je peux, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je ne peux ne pas comprendre ce que je ne peux écrire, je ne croirai ne pas, je ne voudrai ne pas, si, mes lecteurs ne me comprennent pas, je ne voudrai comparer mon style d'écriture à celui de Shakespeare, mais je travaille pour Shakespeare, je ne copie Shakespeare, je ne copie Shakespeare, je ne copie Shakespeare, je ne vaudrai pas Shakespeare, je ne vaudrai pas Shakespeare, je ne vaudrai pas Shakespeare, je ne vaudrai pas Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Arouet Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Arouet Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Arouet Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Molière, je ne vaudrai pas Molière, je ne vaudrai pas Molière, je ne vaudrai pas Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Françoise Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Françoise Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Françoise Sagan. Je ne comprendrai pas Michel Tremblay, pas Rejean Tremblay, mais Michel Tremblay, je ne vaudrai pas Michel Tremblay, je ne vaudrai pas Michel Tremblay, je ne vaudrai pas Michel Tremblay, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si Michel Tremblay n'est pas Rejean Tremblay correctement, si non, je n'ai pas travaillé pour Michel Tremblay dans mes écrits, donc, alors vous ne verez pas Rejean Tremblay dans mes écrits, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je ne travaille pas pour François Sagan, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si, je ne, si, je ne travaille pas pour un auteur qui est dans mon livre, je ne, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si, je ne, si, je ne.



EXTRAITS DE VIVRE AVEC LES VAMPIRES VOLUME UN (être ou ne pas être))

Je ne crois que, je ne peux, je ne vois, je ne sais que, je ne saurais que, je ne verrais que, je ne croirais que, je ne prouverai que dalle comme on dit en France, je ne sais, comment être, que dalle, pour ne pas être, que dalle, sans ne pas être ? Je ne crois que, je ne puis, je ne vois, je ne saurai, je ne verrai que, je ne vois que, je ne prouverai que, que dalle, si ce n'est pas de la France d'où je viens ? Alors comment ? Comment être, que dalle, pour ne pas être, que dalle, sans ne pas être, que dalle, si je ne sors pas ? UN AUTRE SAWAL DE FRANCE



Je ne puis, je ne pourrai, je ne veux, je ne crois, je ne verrai, je ne croirai, je ne saurai, je ne trouverai, je ne savais, je ne vois que, je ne pourrai que, je ne vois que, je ne sais que, je n'éluciderai que, je ne puis que, je ne peux que, je ne crois que, je ne pourrai, je ne puis, je ne crois que, je ne comprendrai que, je ne verrai que, je ne croirai que, je ne vois que, je ne pourrai ne pas élucider ce que je dois faire pour ne pas, ne pas être, je ne crois que, je ne pourrai, je ne trouverai, je ne verrai que, je ne saurai que, je ne fais que ne pas avoir comprit que ne pas être, n'est pas ce que, je dois être puisque être ou ne pas être, n'est pas la question à poser à Shakespeare, je ne crois que, je ne pourrai que, je ne verrai que, je ne comprends que, je ne peux que ne pas voir ce que je devrais ne pas voir ce que je dois voir pour ne pas sombrer dans les rues de New York, pourquoi dois-je être, pour ne pas sombrer ? Alors qu'est ce qu'être ? Je ne crois pas, je ne crois plus, je ne pourrai plus, je ne verrai plus, je ne saurai plus, je ne voudrai plus, je ne vaudrai plus, je ne comprendrai plus, je ne le prends plus de ne pas être, alors quelle est la question à se poser, est-ce être ou est-ce ne pas être, alors qui, qui suis-je ? Shakespeare. Mais alors pourquoi ? Pourquoi ? Pourquoi ? Pourquoi ? Je ne trouve pas, je ne pourrai pas, je ne croirai pas, je ne saurai pas, je ne vois pas, je ne crois pas, je ne comprends pas, je ne solutionnerai pas, je ne vois pas, je ne comprendrai pas, je ne comprends pas, je ne comprends plus, je ne le comprends plus, je ne crois plus, je ne que, et, puis, c'est tout, c'est tout, c'est tout, c'est tout, alors comment ? Comment ? Comment ? Comment ? Comment se fait-il que Shakespeare narre pour toi, alors Shakespeare est satisfait ? Je ne crois plus, si je ne suis pas Shakespeare, si je ne suis pas Voltaire, si je ne suis pas Sawal, si je ne suis pas Molière, je ne pourrai, je ne puis, je ne peux, je ne voudrai, je ne vaudrai rien du tout, je ne croirais rien du tout, je ne comprendrais rien du tout, je ne prouverai rien du tout, je n'éluciderai rien du tout, mais alors qui suis-je ? Molière. Je ne vois, je ne verrai, je ne sais pas, je n'ai pas comprit, je ne l'ai pas comprit, je ne comprends pas, alors pourquoi ? Que diable, alors que fait-on quand il y a que diable ? Rien du tout, rien du tout, rien du tout, rien du tout, rien du tout, rien du tout, rien du tout, rien du tout, je ne crois que, je ne pourrai, je ne viendrai, je ne comprendrai, je ne pourrai, je ne voudrai, je ne vaudrai, je ne saurai, alors comment ? Comment ? Comment ? Comment être, pour ne pas être, sans ne pas être ? SHAKESPEARE



Vivre avec les Vampires, Volume deux.

LA REDACTION DE CE LIVRE EST TERMINé

"Je ne suis que pas ne pas si, je ne suis pas un diable, alors qui suis-je ? Je ne suis que le diable, pas parce que je ne suis que le diable que je ne dois pas être, même si, je ne suis que les statistiques pour les accidents et autres"

" Je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si, je ne vous dis pas que je ne suis pas, ne pas que je ne pourrai sans ne pas être que ne pas sans ne pas être que ne pas, pas pour ne pas que je ne puisse que ne pas être que ne pas pourvu que je ne puisse que ne pas sans ne pas être que ne pas vu que je ne suis que ne pas, mais alors qui suis-je ? Je ne suis qu'un Sawal, pas Sawal négritude du tout, pas Sawal négritude du tout, pas du tout vu que je ne dirai que ne rien du tout, alors qui suis-je si, je ne suis que pas ne pas sans ne pas être le diable ? Mais Alors qui suis-je ? Je ne suis qu'un Sawal, pas pour ne pas que je ne suis, pas pour ne plus que je ne serai, pas pour ne point que je ne sois pas, ne pas que je sois si, je ne suis pas."


Mr. J.R.S.F. writes under the name of Sawal Sawal.

Prior to start iHolla.com, Mr. J.R.S.F. co-founded and co-owned CPE Communications. J.R.S.F. received his College Degree in Applied sciences at College Bois-De-Boulogne, a B.S. in Applied Physics and studied Computer Engineering at Concordia University of Montreal.

J.R. has developed different applications that were geared toward maintaining the Canadian F-18 Hornet and he developed a land-based correction algorithm for navigation. As a member of the system engineering support team responsible for all design changes to the CF-18 weapon system, he helped handle avionic and software changes, in-service integrated logistic support, configuration management, publication support and data management.

All along his career he has worked for larger Engineering companies such as CAE Electronics, SHL System House and CPE Communications located in Montreal and fast growing Companies doing business-to-business e-commerce solutions such as Elite and StudioDirect located in San Francisco and the Silicon Valley Area.


The Great Black Men


My attempt on this page is given the fact historically, the visitors will be able, after reading part or all of the content on this page, to draw, by analogy or pure fact analysis, their own conclusion.


Author's profile:
Here is a very interesting note by Bob Corbett about his essay on the THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION:

This essay really began in a remote village in the Bellefontaine region of southwest Haiti. I had walked into this village from Kenskoff, one of the hardest things I've ever done in my experiences in Haiti. I was exhausted from a nearly 12 hour walk and quite frightened that I simply couldn't make the walk back out. I simply don't do mountains well and we had gone up and down and over three mountains to get there. But, over dinner a discussion came up in which the Haitians present were teasing me about how Haiti "saved" the United States. I was fascinated. I didn't know this story. It certainly was not taught in my history courses in school. When I did finally get back to the states, I started reading about this "saving" story.

The glory of the tale is rooted in a late 20th century view of the world. From that perspective little bitsy Haiti, one of the poorest countries in the world, by resisting Napoleon's invaders, had saved the U.S. since Napoleon was really on his way to attack the huge and glorious U.S. But, the real story, as set in the very beginning of the 19th century was much more glorious than the Haitians knew. Haiti was the economic giant, the plum of Napoleon's empire, and the jewel around which he would build his empire.

The then small and less interesting U.S. would simply be a feeding ground for the slaves he intended to reinstate in Saint-Domingue. Even after I researched and wrote this paper, and told the tale to many Haitians, they tend to still prefer the other story, which is not nearly so glorious to Haiti as the true story. Odd. But that's the way it is!
by Bob Corbettcorbetre@webster.edu



The following are the black men and women who have changed the history of human kind:




François-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture


In 1789 the French colony of Saint Domingue was the most profitable real estate in the world. These profits came at a price: while its sugar plantations supplied two-thirds of France's overseas trade, they also stimulated the greatest individual market for the slave trade. The slaves were brutally treated and died in great numbers, prompting a never-ending influx of new slaves. The French Revolution sent waves all the way across the Atlantic, dividing the colony's white population in 1791. The elites remained royalist, while the bourgeoisie embraced the revolutionary ideals. The slaves seized the moment and in the confusion rebelled en masse against their owners. The Haitian Slave Revolt had begun. When it ended in 1803, Saint Domingue had become Haiti, the first independent nation in the Caribbean. C.L.R. James tells the story of the revolt and the events leading up to it in his masterpiece, The Black Jacobins. James's personal beliefs infuse his narrative: in his preface to a 1962 edition of the book, he asserts that , when written in 1938, it was "intended to stimulate the coming emancipation of Africa." James writes passionately about the horrific lives of the slaves and of the man who rose up and led them--a semiliterate slave named François-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture. As James notes, however, "Toussaint did not make the revolution. It was the revolution that made Toussaint."
Jean Jacques Dessalines

Jacques I. Dessalines


Born at the Cormiers Plantation north of Haiti in 1758, Dessalines was a slave on the plantation of Duclos who ran away to freedom at the age of 33. He was the principal lieutenant of Toussaint Louverture and became the General-in-Chief of the Revolution of St-Domingue after the deportation of Toussaint Louverture.
He was a gifted soldier and distinguished himself during several combats, especially at the Battle of Crete-à-Pierrot. There he launched a splendid call to his soldiers and boosted their courage by leading them to blow up the fortress rather than give it up to the French. He led the indigenous army into victory over the French army of Napoleon Bonaparte in the Battle of Vertières on November 18, 1803. On January 1, 1804, he proclaimed the independence of the colony, which he renamed Haiti.
The same day he was acclaimed Governor-General-for-Life of Haiti, and on September 2, 1804 he was crowned Emperor under the name of Jacques I. Dessalines was assassinated in a revolt on October 17, 1806 at Pont-Rouge. He is remembered as the Father of the Haitian Nation and the Founder of the Independence of Haiti.


Michael Luther King, Jr

Michael Luther King, Jr (Martin Luther King, Jr.)


January 15,1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the family's long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had been graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955 In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family. MORE...
Malcolm X




Malcolm Little (Malcolm X)



Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louis Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family's eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Gavey. Earl's civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm's fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little's efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929 their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground, and two years later Earl's mutilated body was found lying across the town's trolley tracks. Police ruled both accidents, but the Little's were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise had an emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to a mental intuition. Her children were split up amongst various foster homes and orphanages. Malcolm was a smart, focused student and graduated from junior high at the top of his class. However, when a favorite teacher told Malcolm his dream of becoming a lawyer was "no realistic goal for a nigger," Malcolm lost interest in school. He dropped out, spent some time in Boston, Massachusetts working various odd jobs, and then traveled to Harlem, New York where he committed petty crimes. By 1942 Malcolm was coordinating various narcotic, prostitution and gambling rings. MORE...






Frederick Douglass Patterson: Veterinarian


Frederick Douglass Patterson was born in Washington, D.C. on October 10, 1901. He attended Prairie View State College in Prairie View, Texas from 1915-1919, earning A Bachelor of Science in and a Master of Science. He earned a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.) from Iowa State in 1927. Dr. Patterson earned a Master of Science in 1927 and second Ph.D. in Veterinary Medicine in 1932, both from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Dr. Patterson served as an Instructor and Director of Agriculture from Virginia State College, between 1923 and 1928. Dr. Patterson served as Director for the School of Agriculture for Tuskegee Institute, become President of Tuskegee Institute and serving for twenty-five years. Frederick D. Patterson was responsible for the founding of the only black School of Veterinary Medicine in the United states at Tuskegee Institute. Aside: Presidential Medal of Freedom Public Papers of the Presidents June 23, 1987 CITE: 23 Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc. 730 HEADLINE: Presidential Medal of Freedom HIGHLIGHT: Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony. Frederick D. Patterson: "For five decades, as president and president emeritus of Tuskegee Institute, Dr. Frederick D. Patterson has been one of America's outstanding educators. He is also the founder of the United Negro College Fund and the College Endowment Funding Plan, and through these, he has helped finance excellence throughout America's community of historically black colleges. By his inspiring example of personal excellence and unselfish dedication, he has taught the Nation that, in this land of freedom, no mind should be allowed to go to waste."




George Washington Carver, Jr.: Chemurgist


Born: ~Spring 1865 Note on birth date Died: January 5, 1943 Birthplace: Diamond Grove, Missouri Note on Birthplace Former Slave, Educator, Scientist, Businessperson, Service Industry Employee, Agriculturist, Medical Worker, Artist, Author, Lecturer, Domestic, Reformer, Performing Artist. George Washington Carver was born on a Missouri farm near Diamond Grove (now called Diamond), Newton County in Marion Township, Missouri. He received a B.S. from the Iowa Agricultural College in 1894 and a M.S. in 1896. He became a member of the faculty of Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts in charge of the school's bacterial laboratory work in the Systematic Botany department. His work with agricultural products developed industrial applications from farm products, called chemurgy in technical literature in the early 1900s. His research developed 325 products from peanuts, 108 applications for sweet potatoes, and 75 products derived from pecans. He moved to Tuskegee, Alabama in 1896 to accept a position as an instructor at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and remained on the faculty until his death in 1943. His work in developing industrial applications from agricultural products derived 118 products, including a rubber substitute and over 500 dyes and pigments, from 28 different plants. He was responsible for the invention in 1927 of a process for producing paints and stains from soybeans, for which three separate patents were issued. U.S. 1,522,176 Cosmetics and Producing the Same. January 6, 1925. George W. Carver. Tuskegee, Alabama. U.S. 1,541,478 Paint and Stain and Producing the Same June 9, 1925. George W. Carver. Tuskegee, Alabama. U.S. 1,632,365 Producing Paints and Stains. June 14, 1927. George W. Carver. Tuskegee, Alabama. George Washington Carver was honored by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in July 14, 1943 dedicating $30,000 for a national monument to be dedicated to his accomplishments. The area of Carver's childhood near Diamond Grove, Missouri has been preserved as a park, with a bust of the agricultural researcher, instructor, and chemical investigator. This park was the first designated national monument to an African American in the United States. George Washington Carver was bestowed an honorary doctorate from Simpson College in 1928. He was made a member of the Royal Society of Arts in London, England. He received the Spingarn Medal in 1923, which is given every year by the National Association for the Advancement of colored People. The Spingarn Medal is awarded to the black person who has made the greatest contribution to the advancement of his race. Carver died of anemia at Tuskegee Institute on January 5, 1943 and was buried on campus beside Booker T. Washington.


Washington,Booker T.

Dates: 1856-1915 Born in: Hales’s Ford, Virginia Major Events Born as a slave Graduate, Hampton Institute 1881-organized Tuskegee Institute—became leading spokesman for promotion of industrial education for blacks in south Major Publications The Future of the American Negro(1899) Up From Slavery (1901) The Education of the Negro(1904) Tuskegee and its People(1905) The Negro in Business(1907)

Washington's comments, from 1906, praise the Atlanta Exposition and its Board for taking account of African-Americans, but the real thrust of the speech is the assertion that African-Americans are central, not marginal, to the identity of the South and therefore to the national identity of the United States as a whole. See the writings of William Cowper Brann for a very different view.

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Board of Directors and Citizens: One third of the population of the South is of the Negro race. No enterprise seeking the material, civil or moral welfare of this section can disregard this element of our population and reach the highest success. I must convey to you, Mr. President and Directors, the sentiment of the masses of my race when I say that in no way have the value and manuals(?) of the American Negro been more fittingly and generously recognized than by the managers of this magnificent exposition in every stage of its progress.



Jackie Robinson Baseball Player 1919-1972


Jackie Robinson, one of the most significant baseball players in the history of the game, got his professional start in Kansas City. While playing short stop for the war-depleted Monarchs in 1945 he was spotted by Branch Rickey, the general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers. Two years later he became the first black man to play in the modern major leagues. Robinson was born in Georgia and raised in Pasadena, California. A superb athlete, he excelled at every sport he attempted. He achieved stardom at UCLA, where he became the first four-letter athlete in that university's history. Following his discharge from the Army in 1944, he accepted a position teaching physical education at Samuel Huston College in Austin, Texas. The following year, Monarchs founder and owner J. L. Wilkinson, acting on a tip from pitcher Hilton Smith, invited him to try out for the team during their spring training in Houston. During his one season in the Negro Leagues, Robinson proved himself to be an outstanding hitter, a skilled and aggressive base runner, and was one of the best infielders in the league. His spot on the Monarchs' roster proved to be instrumental in securing his part in "baseball's great experiment." During that season Branch Rickey scoured the Negro leagues under the pretext of finding players for a new all-black league he was starting. Only his closest associates knew that Rickey was actually looking for just the right player to lead an assault on baseball's 60-year-old color barrier. Robinson signed with the Dodgers after the 1945 season. He played on their top farm team in 1946, entered the major leagues the following year, and put together a spectacularly successful ten-year career in the majors. Among his long list of achievements, in 1962 Robinson became the first black player inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Written by David Conrads
Thurgood Marshall



1: Thurgood Marshall (1908 - 1993)

written: January 26 1993 sources: New York Times, January 25 1993; 365 Days into Black History; From Slavery To Freedom, John Franklin;

"Thurgood Marshall, Supreme Court Justice" Black Americans of Achievement series Thurgood Marshall is one of the most well-known figures in the history of civil rights in America and the first Black Supreme Court Justice. He served on the Court for 24 years until June 28, 1991 when he announced his retirement due to advancing age and deteriorating health. He passed away January 24, 1993. Before serving on the Supreme Court, Marshall served as legal director of the NAACP. His tenure, from 1940 to 1961, was a pivotal time for the organization, as overturning racial segregation was one of its prime directives. Marshall, along with his mentor Charles Hamilton (who was the first Black lawyer to win a case before the Supreme Court), developed a long-term strategy for eradicating segregation in schools. They first concentrated on graduate and professional schools, believing that White judges would be more likely to sympathize with the ambitious young Blacks in those settings. As the team won more and more cases, they turned toward elementary and high schools. This culminated in the landmark 1954 decision _Brown v The Board of Education_ which declared segregation of public schools illegal. By this time, Marshall was an experienced Supreme Court advocate, having already presented many cases before them, including challenges against white-only primary elections and restrictive covenants. He presented each of his cases in what would become his hallmark style: strtaightforward and plain-spoken. When asked for a defintion of "equal" by Justice Frankfurter, Marshall replied, "Equal means getting the same thing, at the same time and in the same place." President John Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1961. It was not an easy confirmation: a group of Southern senators held up his confirmation for months, and he served initially under a special appointment made during a Congressional recess. Still, from 1961 to 1965, he managed to write 112 opinions on that court, none of which were overturned on appeal. In fact, several of his dissenting opinions were eventually adopted as majority opinions by the Supreme Court. From 1965 to 1967, he served as Solicitor General under President Johnson. By the time Marshall succeeded Justice Tom Clark on the Supreme Court, he had argued 32 cases before that body, winning 29 of them. President Johnson said at the time that appointing Marshall on the Supreme Court was "the right thing to do, the right time to do it, the right man and the right place." MORE...


SYDNEY POITIER


SYDNEY POITIER 1927-


Poitier, 74, was the first black person to win an Oscar for a leading role, in 1963's Lilies of the Field. He has appeared in more than 40 films since 1949, including classics such as Blackboard Jungle, To Sir, with Love and Guess Who's Coming to Dinner. Poitier was born in Miami, Florida Poitier was one of the first black actors to become a major Hollywood star and his roles frequently dealt with racial tension. Academy president Frank Pierson said Poitier deserved his Oscar recognition for his "extraordinary performances and unique presence on the screen". He added: "He represented the motion picture industry with dignity, style and intelligence throughout the world." Filmography MORE...
James Earl Jones, actor




James Earl Jones, actor

James Earl Jones possesses one of the most instantly recognizable voices in entertainment history: a commanding basso profundo with a built-in echo chamber that is the very sound of authority. Jones' great range as a performer has made him a legendary American artist. He is a major classical stage actor-his performances as Lear and Othello are towering achievements-but as the voice of Darth Vader, he is evil incarnate to the billions of Star Wars fanatics. At once he is recognized by theatergoers as one of the foremost interpreters of great contemporary playwrights such as August Wilson and Athol Fugard, and loved and respected by a generation of youngsters as the lion patriarch Mufasa in Disney's animated film, The Lion King. A giant of a man physically, Jones' reputation as an actor is of roughly the same proportions. In The Washington Post, theater writer David Richards wrote: "It's not just his physical size that is imposing, what clinches the impression is the elemental force he brings to his roles. Jones' resonant voice is capable of moving in seconds from boyish ingenuousness to near-biblical rage and somehow suggesting all the gradations in between." MORE...


COLIN POWELL
Secretary COLIN POWELL

Confirmed by voice vote in the Senate and sworn in as secretary of state January 20. Government policy experience: 35 years in the U.S. Army, rising to rank of general and chairman of the Joint Chiefs (1989-1993); national security adviser during the Reagan Administration. Other work experience: Following his retirement, Powell wrote a best-selling autobiography and launched a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the United States and overseas. In April 1997 he chaired the President's Summit for America's Future, subsequently becoming chairman of America's Promise -- the Alliance for Youth, the national nonprofit group aimed at improving the lives of the nation's young people that grew out of the summit's deliberations MORE...
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela




Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in a village near Umtata in the Transkei on the 18 July 1918. His father was the principal councillor to the Acting Paramount Chief of Thembuland. After his father s death, the young Rolihlahla became the Paramount Chief s ward to be groomed to assume high office. However, influenced by the cases that came before the Chief s court, he determined to become a lawyer. Hearing the elders stories of his ancestors valour during the wars of resistance in defence of their fatherland, he dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people. After receiving a primary education at a local mission school, Nelson Mandela was sent to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute where he matriculated. He then enrolled at the University College of Fort Hare for the Bachelor of Arts Degree where he was elected onto the Student's Representative Council. He was suspended from college for joining in a protest boycott. He went to Johannesburg where he completed his BA by correspondence, took articles of clerkship and commenced study for his LLB. He entered politics in earnest while studying in Johannesburg by joining the African National Congress in 1942. At the height of the Second World War a small group of young Africans, members of the African National Congress, banded together under the leadership of Anton Lembede. Among them were William Nkomo, Walter Sisulu, Oliver R. Tambo, Ashby P. Mda and Nelson Mandela. Starting out with 60 members, all of whom were residing around the Witwatersrand, these young people set themselves the formidable task of transforming the ANC into a mass movement, deriving its strength and motivation from the unlettered millions of working people in the towns and countryside, the peasants in the rural areas and the professionals. Their chief contention was that the political tactics of the old guard' leadership of the ANC, reared in the tradition of constitutionalism and polite petitioning of the government of the day, were proving inadequate to the tasks of national emancipation. In opposition to the old guard', Lembede and his colleagues espoused a radical African Nationalism grounded in the principle of national self-determination. In September 1944 they came together to found the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL). Mandela soon impressed his peers by his disciplined work and consistent effort and was elected to the Secretaryship of the Youth League in 1947. By painstaking work, campaigning at the grassroots and through its mouthpiece Inyaniso' (Truth) the ANCYL was able to canvass support for its policies amongst the ANC membership. At the 1945 annual conference of the ANC, two of the League s leaders, Anton Lembede and Ashby Mda, were elected onto the National Executive Committee (NEC). Two years later another Youth League leader, Oliver R Tambo became a member of the NEC. MORE...
Mr. Jean-Bertrand Aristide




Mr. Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Shortly after Duvalier's fall in April of 1986 Aristide led a memorial march to notorious Fort Dimanche prison in memory of the 30,000 Haitians who lost their lives there under Duvalier. The Haitian military opened fire on the crowd of praying demonstrators but Aristide continued a live broadcast on Radio Soleil during the massacre, confirming his reputation as a fearless opponent of the regime.

Aristide became a target of repression by the military governments that held power after Duvalier's fall. He survived at least 9 attempts on his life. On September 11, 1988 St. Jean Bosco was attacked by a group of armed thugs while Aristide was giving mass. Dozens of congregants were murdered and the church was burned to the ground, destroying the symbolic heart of the ti legliz movement. A week later, partly due to the general revulsion at this act of brutality, the military junta fell. Aristide was expelled from the Salesian order on the grounds that he had crossed the border between religion and politics.

Though his church had been burned down Aristide's popularity among the Haitian poor only grew. He continued to play a leading role in the movement for democracy through the difficult and dangerous years of 1989 and 1990. He also dedicated more of his time to La Fanmi Selavi (the Family is life), a home for street children he founded in 1986.

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Mrs. Toni Morisson,Winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize in literature




Mrs. Toni Morisson, Winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize in literature

The volume of critical and popular acclaim that has arisen around the work of Toni Morrison is virtually unparalleled in modern letters. Her six major novels - The Bluest Eye, Song of Solomon, Sula, Tar Baby, Beloved, and Jazz - have collected nearly every major literary prize. Ms. Morrison received the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1977 for Song of Solomon. In 1987, Beloved was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Her body of work was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in 1993. Other major awards include: the 1996 National Book Foundation Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, the Pearl Buck Award (1994), the title of Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters (Paris, 1994), and 1978 Distinguished Writer Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Ms. Morrison was appointed Robert F. Goheen Professor of the Council of the Humanities at Princeton University in the spring of 1989. Before coming to Princeton, she held teaching posts at Yale University, Bard College, and Rutgers University. In 1990 she delivered the Clark lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge, and the Massey Lectures at Harvard University. Ms. Morrison was also a senior editor at Random House for twenty years. She has degrees from Howard and Cornell Universities. MORE...
Mr. Bill Cosby, actor/comedian




Mr. Bill Cosby, actor/comedian

Bill Cosby is one of the most influential performers of the second half of the 20th century. His live appearances have been selling out nightclubs, concert halls and arenas across the country for four decades; he has had an unparalleled career in television; he is the best-selling comedian of all time on records; his blockbuster books have sold millions of copies; and his generous support of numerous charities, particularly in the field of education, have endowed many Americans with the gift of hope and learning. However, it is through his groundbreaking appearances on television, particularly in two landmark series each of which defined an American decade, that Bill Cosby has most decisively touched the lives of millions of Americans. In the 1960s, "I Spy" broke the racial barrier in television by featuring Cosby as the first-ever black lead of a weekly dramatic series. In the 1980s, Cosby returned to television with a show that Coretta Scott King described as "the most positive portrayal of black family life that has ever been broadcast." "The Cosby Show" enjoyed years of number-one ratings and nearly unanimous critical praise. The show single-handedly resurrected the moribund sitcom genre and helped lift NBC from last place to first in the ratings by portraying, according to Newsweek, a diametrically opposite side of the black experience than what had previously been seen on television: "a tightly nuclear, upscale family coping with the same irritations and misunderstandings that afflict their white counterparts." Cosby's TV clan was the very model of a strong, close-knit, parent-dominated unit. "The fact that the family is black, without making a particular point of it," reported Time magazine, "is an encouraging sign of maturity in matters of race." MORE...
Samuel Pierre, PHD




Mr. Samuel Pierre, PHD

Samuel Pierre received the B.Eng. degree in civil engineering in 1981 from École Polytechnique de Montréal, Québec, the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in mathematics and computer science in 1984 and 1985, respectively, from the UQAM, Montréal, the M.Sc. degree in economics in 1987 from the Université de Montréal, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1991 from École Polytechnique de Montréal. From 1987 to 1998, he was a Professor at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières prior to joining the Télé-Université of Québec, an Adjunct Professor at Université Laval, Ste-Foy, Québec, an Invited Professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, then the Université Paris 7, France. He is currently a Professor of Computer Engineering at École Polytechnique de Montréal where he is Director of the Mobile Computing and Networking Research Laboratory (LARIM) and Director of the Industrial Research Chair NSERC/Ericsson in Mobile Networking Systems. His research interests include wireline and wireless networks, mobile computing, artificial intelligence, and telelearning. He is a senior member of IEEE, member of ACM and Fellow of Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC). He is an Associate Editor of IEEE Communications Letters and IEEE Canadian Review, and serves on the editorial board of Telematics and Informatics. MORE...

Michael Jackson, Singer and song writer




Mr. Michael Jackson, Singer and song writer

Born August 29, 1958, to a musically inclined working-class family in Gary, Indiana, Michael Joseph Jackson's destiny was set in stone from day one. While showing a devout interest in music early on in his childhood -- as did the rest of his older brothers -- Michael began performing at a young age. His allegedly controlling father apparently forced young Michael and his brothers to form a musical group called the Jackson 5. The group's popularity immediately skyrocketed after relentlessly performing in a countless number of local talent shows. In 1968, the Jackson 5 was signed to Motown Records and gained recognition for its early chart-toppers, including "I Want You Back," "ABC" and "I'll Be There." Michael led the pack as the group's lead singer and dancer. More...
Oprah Winfrey




Mrs. Oprah Winfrey

Oprah Winfrey has already left an indelible mark on the face of television. From her humble beginnings in rural Mississippi, Oprah's legacy has established her as one of the most important figures in popular culture. Her contributions can be felt beyond the world of television and into areas such as publishing, music, film, philanthropy, education, health and fitness, and social awareness. As supervising producer and host of The Oprah Winfrey Show Oprah entertains, enlightens and empowers millions of viewers around the world. More...
JRSF




Mr. JRSF, Author of (Vivre avec les Vampires)



"la voix qu'on entend dans le monde subliminal qui dit quoi faire pour réussir dans la vie à new york c'est cette voix que l'on devient après la mort, la voix du diable", Vivre avec les Vampires

Mr. JRSF writes under the name of Sawal Sawal.The book is on Amazon.com .

L'auteur Sawal Sawal n'est pas ce que l'on penserait qu'il est, c'est-à-dire, quelqu'un qui n'est pas en relation avec dieu, je ne pourrai ne pas comprendre que je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je ne suis pas en relation avec dieu vu que je ne suis qu'un être humain parce que je ne voudrai ne pas confondre mes lecteurs qui ne comprennent pas les mots, ce que, et les mots, ce dont, et les mots, ne pas, ceci dit, je ne veux jouer avec les mots pour confondre mes lecteurs, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je peux plus écrire comme je peux, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je ne peux ne pas comprendre ce que je ne peux écrire, je ne croirai ne pas, je ne voudrai ne pas, si, mes lecteurs ne me comprennent pas, je ne voudrai comparer mon style d'écriture à celui de Shakespear, mais je travaille pour Shakespear, je ne copy Shakespear, je ne copy Shakespear, je ne copy Shakespear, je ne vaudrai pas Shakespear, je ne vaudrai pas Shakespear, je ne vaudrai pas Shakespear, je ne vaudrai pas Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Arouet Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Arouet Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Arouet Voltaire, je ne vaudrai pas Molière, je ne vaudrai pas Molière, je ne vaudrai pas Molière, je ne vaudrai pas Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Françoise Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Françoise Sagan, je ne vaudrai pas Françoise Sagan. Je ne comprendrai pas Michel Tremblay, pas Rejean Tremblay, mais Michel Tremblay, je ne vaudrai pas Michel Tremblay, je ne vaudrai pas Michel Tremblay, je ne vaudrai pas Michel Tremblay, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si Michel Tremblay n'est pas Rejean Tremblay correctement, si non, je n'ai pas travaillé pour Michel Tremblay dans mes écrits, donc, alors vous ne verez pas Rejean Tremblay dans mes écrits, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si je ne travaille pas pour François Sagan, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si, je ne, si, je ne travaille pas pour un auteur qui est dans mon livre, je ne, je ne comprendrai pas ma tête si, je ne, si, je ne.

Prior to start iHolla.com, Mr. JRSF co-founded and co-owned CPE Communications. JRSF received his College Degree in Applied sciences at College Bois-De-Boulogne, a B.S. in Applied Physics and studied Computer Engineering at Concordia University of Montreal.

JRSF has developed different applications that were geared toward maintaining the Canadian F-18 Hornet and he developed a land-based correction algorithm for navigation. As a member of the system engineering support team responsible for all design changes to the CF-18 weapon system, he helped handle avionic and software changes, in-service integrated logistic support, configuration management, publication support and data management.

All along his career he has worked for larger Engineering companies such as CAE Electronics, SHL System House and CPE Communications located in Montreal and fast growing Companies doing business-to-business e-commerce solutions such as Elite and StudioDirect located in San Francisco and the Silicon Valley Area.